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La rápida disminución de la resistencia a COVID-19 plantea un desafío a la vacunación

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La evidencia emergente de que la protección inmunológica del cuerpo contra COVID-19 puede ser de corta duración, es aún más difícil para los fabricantes de vacunas encontrar vacunas que protejan completamente a las personas de futuras olas de infección, dijeron los investigadores el martes.

Estudios preliminares en China, Alemania, el Reino Unido y otros países han demostrado que los pacientes infectados con el nuevo coronavirus producen anticuerpos protectores para defender su sistema inmunológico, pero parece que sólo duran unos pocos meses.

La mayoría de las personas los producen (anticuerpos), pero a menudo pueden desaparecer bastante rápido, lo que sugiere que la inmunidad puede ser baja», dijo Daniel Altmann, profesor de inmunología del Imperial College de Londres.

Los expertos dicen que esto plantea grandes problemas a los potenciales fabricantes de la vacuna COVID-19 y a las autoridades de salud pública que intentan implementarla para proteger a la población de futuras olas pandémicas.

Esto significa que no es prudente depender excesivamente de la vacuna (para controlar una pandemia)», dijo Stephen Griffin, profesor de medicina de la Universidad de Leeds.

Dijo que para ser verdaderamente efectivas, las vacunas COVID-19 «necesitarán producir una protección más fuerte y duradera… o pueden requerir una administración regular».

«Y estas cosas no son triviales».

Más de 100 equipos de investigación y empresas de todo el mundo están buscando vacunas contra COVID-19, y al menos 17 ya están en la fase de pruebas en humanos para comprobar su eficacia.

Un estudio preclínico en cerdos de COVID-19 AstraZeneca, conocido como AZD1222, mostró que dos dosis producían una respuesta de anticuerpos más fuerte que una sola dosis.

Sin embargo, hasta ahora no hay datos de estudios en humanos que demuestren que cualquier respuesta inmune protectora a los anticuerpos sea fuerte y lo suficientemente prolongada.

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Jeffrey Arnold, profesor de microbiología de la Universidad de Oxford en el Reino Unido y antiguo experto de Sanofi Pasteur, dijo que una de las razones de la falta de datos es simplemente el tiempo:

Sólo se necesitan seis meses para desarrollar y probar rápidamente las posibles vacunas contra el coronavirus, tiempo que no es suficiente para demostrar la longevidad de la protección que ofrecen.

Él y otros expertos en vacunas e inmunología también concluyeron que no se debe necesariamente a la pérdida de inmunidad en los casos naturales de infección por COVID-19 será lo mismo para la respuesta inmunológica causada por la vacuna:

«Si pudiéramos, nos gustaría mejorar la naturaleza», dijo en una entrevista telefónica. «Las vacunas, por supuesto, no infectan directamente con el virus, pero presentamos una proteína de superficie suministrada por otro vector o producida en el laboratorio e inyectada en el brazo… así que el objetivo ideal es sobrellevar mejor la infección en sí, haciendo que la inmunidad de la vacuna sea aún más fuerte que la natural. »

Griffin dijo que un enfoque podría ser que al desarrollar vacunas viables, las autoridades deberían esperar recibir inyecciones de refuerzo de millones de personas a intervalos regulares, o incluso combinar dos o más tipos de vacunas en cada persona para la mejor protección posible.

En la práctica, sin embargo, esto es un gran desafío. «Darle al mundo entero incluso una dosis de vacuna es una cosa», dijo. «Darles múltiples dosis es una cuestión completamente diferente».

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Selecting Online Data Room Features

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